The old record was recorded in both cities February 6, 1933 of -67.7C (-89.86F). The new record was established at Oymyakon February 19th with a reading of -71.2C (-96.16F). Some dispute this record, and are holding judgement until the World Meteorological Organization investigates the matter fully.
Both communities have their temperature sensors in valleys and are prone to temperature inversions, periods where cold air "pools" in the valley and warmer temperatures are seen above the surface.
Another candidate for this "honor" is Mount Logan near the Canada/Alaska border. On May 26, 1991 a temperature of -77.5C (-107.5F) was recorded. Many do not consider it to be a candidate because of the altitude at which it was recorded: 19,500 feet.
The new record is only for the Northern Hemisphere. The coldest temperature ever recorded was in July 1983 at Vostok Station in Antarctica. There was a reading of -89.2C (-128.6F) recorded at the station about 800 miles from the South Pole.
While researching this, I found the record high for Antarctica: 59F on the coast "near" New Zealand. The record high at the South Pole was recorded Christmas Day 2011, at a staggering 9F. In Altoona people saw a high of 46 that day.